(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Columns in the collection of the Cooper-Hewitt Museum"

;^5SilU> 




^Uml&i. 



z 






w \ ? — en £ w E — u) _ 

3RARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniliSNI NVINOSHillAIS S3iaVyan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INS 

> Njioigsv 5 '^.^ > ^sr 2 ^<:i£i>^ > ''fir 5 . _, _ 

liniliSNI^NVINOSHilWs'^Sa I ava a n^ LI B RAR I ES*^SMITHS0NIAN_ institution N0!iniliSNI_NVIN0SHilWs'^S3 

BRARIES^SMITHSONIAN~'lNSTITUTION^NOIiniliSNI~'NVINOSHilWS S3iavaan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INS 
H 1- 2 r- > z — - 








lliniliSNI~NVIN0SHilWS^S3 I y Va a n IL) B R AR I ES^^SMITHSONIANJNSTITUTION _N0liniliSNI~NVIN0SHilWS,^S3 

. ..,»> Z ^^.s^ H /^(ffJi^A E 

O 

I"' 2 ■•^^- > ^^i^i^s^- S ^•.)^^'- >■ 

B RAR I ES"'SMITHS0NIAN JNSTITUTION '"N0linillSNI_NVIN0SHilWs'^S3 I ava a n_LI B RAR I ES"SMITHSONIAN_INS 

\ ^^. i /#% \ /#%\ I '^^^ ^ /^%\ ^ /#% ^ ^^-.^ '-' 

3 2 — _, 2 -I Z _J z 

)iiniiiSNi NviNosHiiws S3iavaan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiisNi nvinoshiiws S3 

" "" 2: r- _,, . z 





B RAR I Es'^SMITHSONIAN'iNSTITUTIOn'" NOIiflillSNI NVINOSHilWS S3 I aVa 3 H LI B RAR I ES SMITHSONIAN INS 




DliniliSNI^NVINOSHiiWs'^SBiaVaan^LIBRARIEs'^SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIifliliSNI NVINOSHIIWS S3 



w 



w^ 



CO 



-z 



- <^ 



w 



>>^^^ 






- / 



isNi NViNOSHims S3iavyan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiisNi nvinoshiiws sBiavas 




ies'^smithsonian institution NoiiniiiSNi NviNosHiiws'^saiavaan libraries Smithsonian instituti 

(^ — rn — m = m _ 




O 

LSNI^NVm0SHimS~S3iavyan'LIBRARIES^SMITHS0NIAN~*INSTITUTI0N NOIiniliSNI NVINOSHilWS SHiaVdS 




w = — w — 5 w — "^ 

lES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIinillSNI NVINOSHilWS S3iavaan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTI 

M Z , M 2 M . Z > ^ ^ Z •■. 




;IES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniliSNI NVINOSHilWS S3iaVMan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTI 
^ r- _ z r- . z ^^ Z ^._^ g 

03 
> 

_ w E (/) X 5 <" — *" 

liSNi NviNOSHiiws ssiavaaii libraries Smithsonian institution Noiioiiiswi NviNOSHims S3ibvai 

z w z .-..-. to z ,... w z '" 






_ > '«^ 5 ' > _ 

CO 2 W * 2 CO '•■2 CO 

nES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIifliliSNI NVINOSHillAIS S3iavaan LIBRARIES SMITHS0N!AN_1NSTITUT 

CO 5 CO — . CO 5 CO 2 ^ — _^ 






iSNI~'NVINOSHilWS S3 I ava a n~'LI B RAR I ES^SMITHSONIAN~'lNSTITUTION NOIifliliSNI NVINOSHimS S3 I a Va ( 



xv^.^:i^^\ 



^-gif^'.. 



Columns 



in the 

Collection of the 
Cooper- Hewitt 




f 



/ih mbh> 



! Il.it i. 



i 



IIWHWiWIiliJMil l U l l li M lll UW I MI I Mi l l ll WH 




* 



The Sfhithsonian 
Institution's 
National Museum 
of Design 



cover: 

Copy after Giocondo Albertolli (1742-1839) 

Italy 

Corinthian Capital, 1798 

Pen and brown ink, gray wash drawing 

Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 

1938-88-3388 



HO 

Columns ^^7 







in the 

Collection of the 
Cooper-Hewitt 
Museum/ 




The Smithsonian 
Institution's 
National Museum 
of Design 



© 1982 by the 
Smithsonian Institution 
All rights reserved 
Library of Congress 
Catalog No. 82-072121 



Claude Perrault, 
translated by John James 
A Treatise of the Five Orders 
of Columns in Arcfiitecture, 

London, 1708 

Plate I: The Five Orders 

Engraving 

Gift of Abram S. Heviiitt 

Cooper-Hew/itt Museum Library 




Foreword Columns inaugurates a second 

series of handbool<s on objects in 
tine Cooper-Hewitt Collection. The 
first set is devoted to specific 
collections; this one, lii<e so many 
of the Museum's exhibitions, will 
focus on themes that cross 
departmental boundaries and have 
particular visual appeal. 

The current revival of interest 
in classicial design has encouraged 
us to explore the column— which, 
throughout its long history, has 
enjoyed varying degrees of 
popularity, both as a structural 
support and as a decorative 
element. Columns, along with 
capitals, are richly represented in 
the Cooper-Hewitt Collection in 
drawings, prints, rare books, 
photographs, wallpapers, textiles, 
and utilitarian and decorative 
objects of all kinds. 

This first publication in the 
new series was made possible 
through the kindness of two of the 
Museum's major benefactors, the 
Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and 
the Arthur Ross Foundation. Its 
appearance coincides with the 
showing of the exhibition The 
Column: Structure and Ornament, 
which was also generously funded 
by the Arthur Ross Foundation, 
long known for its dedication to 
classical architecture. 

Lisa Taylor 
Director 



Like many things of apparently 
simple purpose, columns are 
actually complex. Structurally, they 
are large posts erected to hold up 
roofs and ceilings, but artistically 
and symbolically they serve other 
purposes. Columns are among the 
most persistent of architectural 
elements, having been superseded 
neither by the clustered piers of 
medieval churches nor the chaste, 
squared-off geometry of the frames 
of twentieth-century buildings. 
Columns have been made of many 
materials— marble, granite, and 
other stone, as well as wood, iron, 
and concrete. They were and are 
essential to classical architecture, 
and they have also been used as 
ornament on all manner of 
decorative arts, from desks and 
tables to clocks and candlesticks. 

Columns, in their posture 
against gravity, speak first of 
support. They also imply shelter, 
since they almost always hold up a 
roof or ceiling. And, when a 
number of them are set in line, 
they form a screen, a subtle and 
suggestive device that mediates 
between the unstructured, 
relatively chaotic space of the 
outdoors and the more rational and 
comprehensible enclosed 
architectural space that lies beyond 
them. 

Although there is little tangible 
evidence for the theory that the 




Roland Freart de Chambray, translated by 

John Evelyn 

A Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with 

the Modern, London. 1664 

"Of the Corinthian Order" 

Engraving 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 



.//„- ,/i/;i/.i.r/ ij'-./yii/-i 







.•J/it.^//Hn/.>,r/ ii/- .yV/'/J ii/ii,/i ,/,trt fir/// 

/,- //„ f./rr/f ('■■yli//:/A . 




^/„- ,'^J ,//i- f^'/-/r,r //I r/j 



A 



•'ny/'/t ,'///'t Cln/l/Antn ^Jr^i/tr/ . 



.//, '.j-,.„clAM./M'''y"y'''' ■■/■■''''■'"'■'■''' **'■"' 

,v,!',//fr^».v/^^/i;•"''''/'^-'™//v■.•'«s.y'//.'''^5>'^''''■'''^'^'>"/■ 




srr"' 





^jjffff» 



~^ 



^ 



F '/^oi-r.A'rttj 



7/ ' ^' i^^''':^ 






/.tfM' 



//i,/„/J,-M/,M',X,&!,i' 
l/,,/i,/,i, 




William Chambers 

A Treatise on Civil Architecture, 

London. 1759 

"Of the Origin of Buildings" 

Engraving 

Gift of Hamill and Barker 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 



Claude Perrault. translated by John James 

A Treatise of the Five Orders of Columns in 

Architecture, London. 1708 

Plate IV: The Ionic Order 

Engraving 

Gift of Abram S. Hewitt 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 





Circle of Etienne-Louis Boullee (1728-1799) 

France 

Temple of Curiosities 

Pen and black ink. blue and brown wash 

drawing 

Gift of The Council of the Museum 

1911-28-463 




'^JtM> ^U.W^-,"^t'^WA,^VvJ^»A.v^^v/ 






Sft y" '- ^ M v ;W:.i'.. s j V >i..,gCiiaf^ 






above left to right: 

Egypt 

Capital 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola 

Regola delli Cinque Ordini d'Architettura, 

1563 

Plate Xlli, Doric Order (detail) 

Engraving 

Gift of Henry 0. Milliken 

Cooper HevKitt Museum Library 

Capital from L'Art Decorat/f, 

Charles Claesen, Editor 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

Cloister of Alcobaga 

Portugal 

Capital 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

Capital 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

Germany 
Capital 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 





u„ 




-rf 




w " IP ■ 


n p ^ ^ 

&£■£■ 




i^^^^'='''^''^"';^w 




unsophisticated hut— by way of 
gradual refinement and artistic 
improvement— became the temple, 
the theory that primitive wooden 
roof-posts evolved into temple 
columns of stone is probably 
correct. 

The celebrated basic Orders of 
classical architecture— Doric, Ionic, 
and Corinthian— appeared between 
the seventh and fourth centuries 
B.C., and, except during the Middle 
Ages, have been in use by 
architects ever since. Their 
appearance owed'something to the 
robust Egyptian columns of earlier 
times, which the Greeks, inveterate 
sea-voyagers, knew well. But 
neither the mammoth Egyptian 
temple supports, with bulging 
capitals of gathered plant-forms, 
nor the more elegant and slender 
sculptured half-columns that 
projected from solid Egyptian walls 
were more than shadowy sources 
for the early Greeks. 



Greek architects and sculptors 
sought to express the essence of 
the column in its design. They 
began with an elegant but 
recognizable representation of the 
column's function— the support of 
the weight above it— by developing 
an abstract representation of the 
nature of the juncture between 
vertical load and horizontal 
support— the Doric Order. Soon 
came the later, more embellished 
and more organic shapes of the 
Ionic Order— with its scrolled 
capital— and the Corinthian Order— 
with its tall bell of acanthus leaves 
terminating in diagonally projecting 
small scrolls or volutes. By the 
fourth century B.C., the 
development of the Greek classical 
columns, with their extended 
families of mouldings and bases, 
was essentially complete, and 
classical Greek temples and 
sanctuaries, public colonnades, and 
other columned buildings could be 
seen in most Mediterranean lands. 



below: 

Italy 

Chimneyplece,19th century 

Pen and dark gray ink, watercolor drawing 

Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 

1938-88-3432 




,!;.lHlb1\'l>^iV;Vy,^,y:h.^',^y,>.lV.VV.VAsUV,VV.H,V.^l^''.AM^A'.>y.b^.hi>^V>.VV,V.>',S-.>^.S>AA^^>.., 




10 



facing page, top: 

Italy 

Snuff Box, 19th century 

Variegated agate, stone mosaic, gold 

mounts 

Gift of Miss Susan Dwigtit Bliss 

1967-48-14 

Italy 

Snuff Box, about 1840 

Green porphyry, stone mosaic, gold mounts 

Bequest of Sarah Cooper Hewitt 

1931-6-24 

below: 

England 

Birdcage, midl9th century 

Mahogany veneer, curly maple, and wire 

Gift of Sarah and Eleanor Hewitt 

1916-19-82 




The Romans, when they took 
over these lands, were anxious to 
acquire a veneer of Greek culture 
and adopted the Greek Orders, 
They quickly began making 
changes in them, however, that 
became important for the history of 
Western architecture. 

The fundamental parts of all 
the Orders are the same: base 
(missing in the Doric Order), shaft, 
capital, mouldings, and small light- 
and-shade details differing for each 
Order. In general, the complexity 
of the capital determines the 
complexity of the other parts. The 
height of the shaft is based on its 
diameter. Usually the shaft is six to 
eleven diameters high, depending 
on the Order. The capital should be 
recognizably one of the Orders, 
although the details and profiles 
can vary considerably. The Romans 
added the Composite Order, which 
has a Corinthian capital topped 
with large, prominent Ionic scrolls, 
as well as figured capitals and other 
variations and permutations. 
Variations in the essential shapes 
appeared in later ancient times- 
twisted forms, vine-clad shafts, and 
highly idiosyncratic capitals. 

Slight changes in the ratio 
between the width and height of a 
column can lessen, if not destroy, 
the harmony and effectiveness of 
the design. The column itself, if it is 
not to appear mechanical and 



11 



w 

\\ ' 


1 . 


T=r 







'*! ^,V. 



hi.:a*^^ 



■.:! 



? , ^.: 






{'■"ji''; •*^' 



\- 



■J,^ 






aj-:'J 



■*.k 



i l|'*!l 











above: 

Antonio Donelli (active about 1750-1760) 

Italy 

Stage Design: Prison Interior 

Pen and brown ink, gray wash drawing 
Purctiase, Friends of the Museum Fund 
1938-88-461 

left: 

Germany 

Caryatids 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 



12 



Italy 

A Twisted Column, 18th century 

Pen and brown ink, gray wash, slight traces 

of pencil drawing 

Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 

1938-88-3720 




13 




SSf^^s©r(W 



iMMpHM 



Probably by Joseph Dufour (1752-1827) 

France 

Wallpaper, about 1805 

Woodblock printed 

Gift of John Judkyn in memory of his 

mother, Florence Judkins 

1953-213-1 



unsupple, must taper slightly as it 
rises to its capital. And this 
tapering, if it is not to appear rigid 
and uninteresting, must actually be 
curved subtly in silhouette. This 
effect, known as entasis, although 
it can go unnoticed by the 
untrained eye, gives the column a 
graceful appearance. 

In antiquity columns were 
made of marble when resources 
permitted, but often a local stone 
that would take and hold a sharp 
edge was used. Colored marbles, 
tinted granites, and fairly rare 
stones were favored by the 
Romans, both in Rome and in the 
provinces. Shafts might be 
monolithic or built up from carefully 
fitted cylindrical drums. By the 
second century A.D., columns and 
other elements of decoration 
appeared in terra cotta, for by then 
the Orders were a part of all 
aspects of architecture, and what 
we now call classicism was as 
common in non-institutional and 
vernacular buildings as in the grand 
monuments most commonly 
associated with it. 

The decision of whether or not 
to flute the column, that is, to 
channel the shaft vertically, is also 
complicated and depends on a 
number of factors: the amount of 
light that will fall on the column 
and the direction from which it will 
come, whether or not the architect 



14 




above: 

Egypt 

Capital 

Lithograph 

Cooper Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

right: 

J. Zuber et Cie. 
Rixheim, Alsace, France 
Two panels from El Dorado, early 20th- 
century edition of the wallpaper originally 
printed in 1848 
1540 hand blocks on paper 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. William Collis 
1975-77-9.-10 




15 




above: 

Pollio Vitruvius. Commentary by Danielle 

Barbara 

I Dieci Libri dell'Architettura, Venice. 1556 

Woodcut; Ionic Capital 

CooperHewitt Museum Library 

right: 

Charles-Louis Clerisseau (1722-1820) 

France 

Figures Near a Ruined Colonnade, 1761 

Pen and black ink. brown and gray wash. 

white gouache drawing 

Gift of Mrs. Howard J. Sachs and Peter G. 

Sachs in Memory of Edith L. Sachs 

1978-168-42 




16 



wishes to emphasize the vertical 
aspects of his design, and other 
considerations. In view of these 
things, it is not surprising that a 
body of rules, sometimes all but 
impenetrable, has grown up to 
guide the less inspired in the 
correct use of the column. The 
story of these rules is more 
interesting than the rules 
themselves, which had to do with 
proportion, spacing between 
columns, and profiles and 
assemblies of mouldings. The 
process began as soon as the 
principles of the Greek Orders were 
established, but the only ancient 
book of rules we have to refer to is 
that of the Roman architect 
Vitruvius, who wrote an inordinately 
influential treatise, The Ten Books 
on Architecture, in about 25 B.C., 
early in the reign of Augustus 
Caesar. Manuscript copies of his 
work survived the Dark Ages, and 
after A.D. 1400 his work became a 
bible, to be quoted, puzzled and 
argued over, and ignored or 
followed according to time or taste. 
Today we know that Vitruvius, far 
from representing fairly the 
architecture of his time, was a very 
conservative man, proud of the 
knowledge he acquired in the field 
and in the library, but hardly 
receptive to the striking innovations 
of his day. He never mentions the 
grand experimental buildings of 



Leonhard Chailleat, called Leonardo Scaglia 
(active 1640-1650) 
France, worked In Italy 
Composite Capital with Figures 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash drawing 
Purchased In Memory of The Council of the 
Museum 
1947-57-3 





17 



^> iS ^" I '»■■■*■ fi-J^W — ^^^y-T^i 







above: 

France 

Pilaster Capital, about 1810 

Gilt bronze 

Gift of Harriet Crocker Alexander 

19071-40 



Rome and its environs that pointed 
the way toward a new and vital 
spatial architecture to which the 
Orders would be adapted by Roman 
imperial architects. Instead, he 
gives much practical information 
about construction and a kind of 
embalmed codification of rules by 
which he and other less than 
inventive conservatives might 
achieve an adequate, respectable 
classicism. 

This is not to say that 
Vitruvius's work is without value. 
On the contrary, it contains much 
precious information otherwise 
unrecorded. In the Renaissance his 
text became a kind of touchstone of 
propriety. But because Vitruvius 
wrote before the chief monuments 
of ancient Rome were built, before 
Roman reorchestrations of Greek 
elements had appeared fully 
defined, much of his text could 
not be coordinated with what 
Renaissance architects could see 
and measure. Vitruvius's bias in 
favor of later Greek design had, 



through the accident of its 
preservation, put into the hands of 
Renaissance architects a work that 
they valued more for its 
authenticity as a genuine ancient 
text than for its content. Soon they 
began making their own rules for 
the Orders, the famous regole, 
which, though acknowledging 
Vitruvius's primacy, departed from 
his prescriptions— as his Roman 
successors had done— with 
impunity. Thus successive 
architects, from the mid-fifteenth 
century onwards, produced books 
of rules wherein they invoked the 
name of Vitruvius, a process that 
continued at least until early in the 
present century. Giacomo Barozzi 
da Vignola in the sixteenth century, 
Claude Perrault in the seventeenth, 
and many others wrote their own 
variations on Vitruvius; their names 
appeared on the title-pages of their 
followers, and thereby kept 
alive the Vitruvian rules, especially 
those for the design and 
proportions of columns. - 

Almost from the earliest times 
columns have been used on a 
variety of buildings, and it might be 
said that they are a symbol of the 
hallowed origins of Western 
Civilization, rather than an 
indication of the function of a 
building. The temple, the church, 
the bank, and the house have all 
made use of the column. 



18 






above: 

Meissen 

Germany 

Candlesticks, early 19th century 

Porcelain 

Gift of Miss Sarah Cooper-Hewitt 

1931-84-18A,B 

left: 

Spain 

Vargueiio, 17th century 

Wood, iron, velvet 

Gift of Harvey Smith 

1968-1406, 7 



19 



The column is related to the 
engaged column and the pilaster, 
both of which are really parts of 
walls but have the components 
and silhouettes of columns. The 
engaged column projects from a 
solid wall in a more or less half- 
round shape; the pilaster is flat and 
projects less. Pilasters are often 
found on walls directly behind fully 
round, free-standing columns, an 
ingenious device that responds to 
and reinforces the column's 
powerful sense of presence. 
Engaged columns and pilasters give 
the architect tools with which to 
break up and articulate otherwise 
largely unfeatured wall surfaces, 
giving them a rhythmic implied 
division that can lessen the 
monotony of a structural solid. 
They are also used in defining 
openings in walls by flanking them 
or dividing one opening from 
another. Pilasters and mouldings 
are often more subtle than they 
may at first seem, in part because 
of the shadows created by the 
details of their form. A properly 
classical building without 
mouldings is unthinkable because 
the play of light and shadow on 
these forms lies at the heart of the 
visual definition of architectural 
form. 

Other than for certain 
memorial purposes, columns rarely 
stand alone. They usually appear in 




Desfosse et Karth 

France 

Pilaster from a set of wallpapers entitled 

Regence, 1863-1865 

Woodblock printed 

Gift of A. Germain 

1955-3-3 



k^T 




20 




England, about 1812 
Hand block printed fabric 

Cotton, plain weave 

General Museum Purchase Fund 

1975-60-32 



21 




fi^jp^j: 



above: 

John Nash 

Illustrations of Her Majesty's Palace at 

Brighton, London, 1838 

Plate 23: Banquetting Room Gallery, or 

Green Drawing Room, (detail) 

Engraving after Augustus Pugin 

(1762-1832) 

Purchased in Memory of 

The Council of the Museum 

1951-128-1(23) 

right: 

John Nash 

Illustrations of Her Majesty's Palace at 

Brighton, London, 1838 

Plate 5: Center Part of the Steyne Front 

Engraving after Augustus Pugm 

(1762-1832) 

Purchased in Memory of 

The Council of the Museum 

1951128-1(5) 




22 



France 

Column with Statue of Napoleon, 

Place Vendome, Pans, about 1850 

Woodblock printed 

Gift of Sarah and Eleanor Hewitt 

1928-2-91 




23 



file, set out along a straight line, or 
are used in pairs if they are not 
part of a facade supporting a 
triangular gable or pediment. This 
composition appears in a great 
variety of sizes, from the small 
niche in a church or house to 
majestic facades rising sixty to 
eighty feet in the air. Sometimes 
columns are set along curves, 
creating an ever-changing and 
complex pattern of relationships as 
the observer moves toward or 
around the building. All these 
combinations are of ancient origin, 
and all have been used in 
seemingly endless variety. 

The Romans, after a number 
of trial attempts, perfected the 
marriage of columns w^ith arches 
and added it to the basic classical 
repertory that had been established 
by the Greeks. The Romans also 
combined the column with the 
vault, an equally important 
development for the history of 
architecture. In such combinations, 
the column might be structural, 
an actual working member of a 
building, or purely visual, an 
element added for its symbolic 
value or in order to give a rhythmic 
vertical organization to the interior 
of a vaulted building. 

While the Greeks had mixed 
the Orders, as in the celebrated 
fifth-century B.C. Temple of Apollo 
at Bassae, it was the Romans who 



,imf^ 






V, 



X 


















-:;;?«•■ 
.'*«^ 



24 



facing page: 

Matteo Borboni (about 1610-1667) 

Italy 

Catafalque of Elisabetta Sirani, 1665 

Pen and brown Ink, brown wash, red and 

black chalk drawing 

Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 

1938-88-2503 

right: 

Leon Battista Albert! 
L'Architettura, Florence, 1550 
Woodcut: Basilica, Interior Fagade 
Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 




^^muti^ 



^IMllMlMJAiJjJJjLiLXJLlA 




II 



frrrrrrrfru M 1 1 n itri n^ 







4 



-j-j'^y^f.H'-^'-^---^^ 



above: 

Giuseppe Barberi (1746-1809) 

Italy 

Amphitheater with a Colonnade 

Pen and brown ink, brown wash drawing 
Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 
1938-881170 



25 



below: 

Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900) 

United States 

Column Drums from the Parthenon, 1869 

Oil sketch 

Gift of Louis P. Church 

1917-4-574 A 



facing page; top: 

Oliver Smith (born 1918) 

United States 

Stage Design: North African Coast, for 

Maiden Voyage, 1955 

Pen and black Ink, pencil and 

watercolor drawing 

Gift of Oliver Smith 

1969-1714 

facing page, bottom: 
Italy, Rome 
Arch of Galllen 

Engraving 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 




26 




27 




Antonio Basoli (1774-1848) 

Italy 

Stage Design: Egyptian Temple 

Pen and black Ink, gray to black wash 

drawing 

Purchase, Friends of the Museum Fund 

1938-88434 



00^0^ 



28 




above: 

Egypt 

Capitals 

Lithograph 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 



began doing it regularly. The best- 
known example is probably the 
external configuration of the 
Colosseum in Rome. Here the three 
arcaded horizontal bands are 
treated with the three traditional 
Orders— in this case, in the form of 
engaged columns between the 
arches— with the Corinthian Order 
being repeated in the pilasters of 
the solid wall of the top, fourth 
story. Thus, by the fourth century 
A.D., most of the combinations of 
classical design elements that we 
see along streets today had been 
either perfected or attempted. This 
was not, however, the end of the 
story. Although the death of the 
classical column had been 
predicted in the eighteenth century, 
and, in fact, this quite reasonably 
could have come to pass, in 1748 
an utterly unexpected event 
occurred— the rediscovery of 
Pompeii. This event, on which so 
much of archaeology and the 
history of art depends, brought 
classicism to the fore anew: indeed, 
the classical style quickly became 
the rage of the day. Piranesi's 
splendid etchings of Rome, ancient 
and modern, fueled the fire. During 
the next century, the academies of 
architecture, especially the Beaux- 
Arts in Paris, preached the tenets 
of classicism. Architects and their 
clients were well aware of the 
patriotic overtones of classicism. By 



1900, the column had, for better or 
worse, largely displaced those other 
grand symbols of Western 
architecture, the medieval pointed 
arch and vault with piers. As in 
ancient Rome, size was important. 
Charles McKim said that scale was 
to be Roman and would be 
maintained— and indeed, when he 
designed Pennsylvania Station in 
1910, it was. 

The column has, curiously, 
provided both limitations and 
freedom for the architect. It is at 
the same time both a challenge and 
a useful tool. Historians continue to 
teach the principles of classical 
architecture, and since World War II, 
the column has reappeared. If this 
resurrection should turn out to be 
short lived, no matter. The column, 
as a symbol of our past, will always 
command attention. 

William L. MacDonald 



29 




above: 

Persepolis 
Capital 

Engraving 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Picture Library 

right: 

Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola 

Livre Nouveau ou Regies des Cinq Ordres 

d'Architecture, Paris, 1767 

Plate 30: Maniere de diminuer et torser les 

colomnes 

Engraving 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 




AlANIKHE DE DI.MIXIKE El' TOli .-Ell LES ( 'OEOM Xl-'.S 



J, r.-l,l .,,./. ., 



liUll Ottrtuit ft lO i'fl.niiif 



J^p^u 




Four .Lvrwe ./-j- i'.iL'nuu\r LTsrs J /.mi rn / .ui f j- I'ljji,f^ 
amdrten im I'riti itM in ri'L'nuit- sjll t.-r.ri- iii I'l.'r-^^^^ji 

iu kri^j f^jLirs i, /:. 

SpW^lU Ml llultAI ./111 
c^nire de Li t-i't'niii/- rl 
i"in(j- rtur.'rli-i-i-'^ 'f.r- 



30 




mmmmiii0:r(^mtir^mmr^m&Msmam^mm''ti 



'"feiii^iMiiMKfa^yisw^gialift^^ 



Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola 

Regola delli Cinque Ordini 

d'Architettura, 1563 

Plate XX, Ionic Order 

Engraving 

Gift of Henry 0. Milllken 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library 




, Tiraki il C athcW Ji aacsta prima uoluta n unaltrii linea in Liuja: c i.hc vassi per d 
centra dell occnio n iiuidc il aeOD occhio nel moao seiinato Jt sopra nelU piiura 
A.et SI corruncm poi at pnmo punto seanuto i et Jiaira col compasso una auar 
ta aictrcolo aipot al punb semato i si mm ialtra auarta etcosi proceaenao si 
treain compitamente . Per -fur voi laarossezza ael ItsteUo st come ealte la 



delta larah 



vol laa, 



T 



a che lascia Asovradprimo^tro cost s'hcL 



iuarta parte delia larahez-z 

)kda partire ciascuna ai auclle para e'hanno seruito vcr centri m ^ (t 
airanacvoi alti-e.iz.aiiarte ai circolo conauem centri jarahrmCa. 



j Volendo fare la voiuta nel molo auisotto iiseanata nrasi 
la linea fetta Catietv la ciualc sara alta parti, lo.a'un moaulo 
J), parti ieueno restare di sopra del centra et vartij Oisotro 
etm ietto centre jair la dtuLSwne della circonjerenza m parti 
s.come e dueanata.Dipoi deuesi fare ntrianaolo. BCD cne 
la Imea.B.Csia parti r, d'un modulo et la linea C D sia parti7 
'et perche si pud uederi.et conoscerc peril diseano fitto per numeri parm 
he hash a faperlo formare. Dwoi deuesi rapvortare su le Unee che ne diuidon 



31 






'k^Pi llll^?9'j 



l-Ijr.H iiiSHBIIIlIi tR, 



r 



^^rw 



Tl' 



""fW 




^ * 




1 



w- 



The Orders 

Engraving 

Cooper-Hewitt Museum 
Picture Library 



32 



Designed by Mentyka/Schlott 
Printed by Eastern Press, Inc. 
Typeset by Cardinal Type Service, Inc. 



Cooper-Hewitt Museum 




2 East 91st Street 
New York, NY 10028 




i.\ o 
(/) '■■ Z (/> 2 W *Z u) *■ -Z 

NViNOSHiiws S3iyvaan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiJLSNi nvinoshiiws Siiavaan 1 

trt _ :; OT =; to — ... <n 





SMITHSONIAN~INSTITUTION^NOIinillSNl"^NVINOSHilWS S3iyvy8n LIBRARIES~SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION I 




NviNOSHiiws S3iyvaan ' 
t/> 2 




CO 



NVINOSHIIWS*" S3 lavdan "LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN~INSTITUTION'"NOIiniliSN 
CO z V w ^^-p^.„^ z: \ (o 

SMITHSONIAN^INSTITUTION '^N0liniliSNI_NVIN0SHill/Ms'^S3 I d Vd a 11 LI B RAR I ES*^SMITHSONIAN~INSTITUTI0N 

CO ^ Z \ <" 5 (O = <o 



NVINOSHIIWS S3iavaan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiiSNi nvinoshiiws S3iyvaan 

z I- z r- z • 

CD 

> 

to - CO ± — CO \ 5 CO 

smithsonian'institution NoiiniiiSNi NVINOSHIIWS S3iavyan libraries^smithsonian institution 








CO 



CO 

o 

en .. gtO Z (/> *Z W "-Z 

NVINOSHiiWS S3iaVban_LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN_ INSTITUTION NOIiniliSNI_NVINOSHllWS S3iavaan_ 
"SMITHSONlAN~'lNSTITUTION^NOIiniliSNl"^NV!NOSHilWS S3iavaan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 





•DC 
(rt — = « — — w \ £ c^ — f 

NoiifiiiisNi NViNosHiiws S3iavyan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiiSNi nvinoshiiws 

w z w z ..-. to Z ,-i- W H 

2 • W Z W * Z CO '•■ Z W 

_LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN _ INSTITUTION NOIiniilSNI_NVINOSHilWS S3 I avy 8 n_ LI B RAR I ES SMITHSONIAN 





^N0liniliSNl"'NVIN0SHilWS^S3 I d Vy a n~'LI B RAR I ES^SMITHSONIAN^INSTITUTION NOIiniliSNI^NVINOSHims 






m 

"libraries SMITHSONIAN~INSTITUTION'^NOIiniliSNI~NVINOSHilWS S3iavaan'-IBRARI ES SMITHSONIAN 
z V w ^ ^ 2:\ w z ^>ta.^'* ^ - — - ^ 

'^NOIinillSNI NVIN0SHilWs'^S3iyvyan^LIBRARIEs'^SMITHS0NIAN INSTITUTION NOIinillSNI_NVmOSHilWS 

w =; w 2 - '^ ^ "^ 

(/) 

H 

O XtVAios^jCJ/ ^ 
I -^ -J Z _1 Z -J — - 

LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIinillSNI NVINOSHimS S3iavyan LIBRARIES SMITHSONIAN 
z d^ •" ^ ^ ^ ■" 

CD 
TO 

> 

w 2 — CO \ ? w — ^ 

iMoiiniiiSNi NViNosHiiws S3iavaan libraries Smithsonian institution NoiiniiiSNi nvinoshiiws 

w z v> z ... w z ^>- t" z ^ t 

I ^ "m jf^ o /f^ ^^\ I . 2^ ;^^ o ^^Mj Xx ^ /?2? '%x\ o «jX ' ■' "^ ^"^ ^ '"^ "* -^ 







I 

? T«<k w 2 OT * Z (rt *■ Z </i 

RIES SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION NOIiniliSNI NVINOSHimS S3iavyan libraries SMITHSONIAN 
ir> = <n — , . to 5 <« ■ 



.«9^ 



_j r-^'ln^x — 



/..,. 



^ ^ -v^^^ 






/^*i